Sangrur

Sangrur

About District

Location

Situated at a distance of 80 km from Ludhiana and 48 km from Patiala, Sangrur is the capital of the erstwhile Jind State. The Palaces of the state fell to the share of Haryana. Some of the prominent structures here includeGovernment Civil Secretariat and Diwan or Assembly Hall of the erstwhile State.
Sangrur is a city in the Indian state of Punjab, India. It is the headquarters of the Sangrur district. It is located at the intersection of the roads connecting Jalandhar with Rewari and Chandigarh with Bathinda, at a distance of 77 km from Ludhiana and 58 km from Patiala.
The earliest settlement at the site of Sangrur is believed to have begun around 2,300 B.C. Attracted by the fertile soil and availability of water, people from Sindh and Balochistan started moving and following the path of the Satluj or the Ghagger settled at Rohira. They started living in thatched huts on the virgin soil, before long they started building houses of sun-dried bricks. By about 2,000 B.C, a new set of people is believed to have settled at the site. Their pottery was more Surdy and their equipment superior. The houses were well laid out and were fairly spacious.
Sangrur is said to have been founded by one Sanghu, a Jatt, about four hundred years back. At one point in history, Sangrur was a part of Nabha state but during the time of Maharaja Ranjit Singh it was forcefully taken from Nabha state and gifted to Jind State. The Maharaja of Jind made Sangrur winter capital of Jind state while its summer capital was Khunga Kothi, a place near Jind. It was part of PEPSU state after the partition of India and was made a district headquarters. It became part of Punjab state after the abolition of PEPSU state. District Sangrur lost a good chunk of its area to Haryana and the remaining district was further subdivided into two when its Barnala tehsil was granted a district status.Sangrur was considered to be the largest district of Punjab before Barnala became the separate district.

History & Culture

The district of Sangrur was formed in 1948. The name of the district from its headquarters, Sangrur, said to be have founded by one Sanghu, a Jat, about 400 years back.The Sangrur District as of today comprises parts of a few erstwhile distinct administrative units, the Philkian States if Jind, Nabha and Patiala: the Mohammadan State of Malerkotla; and some parts of then district of Ludhiana. It is interesting to note that Sangrur itself was earlier a part of Nabha State. History of the district is, therefore, complicated, although it is traceable through its various components. In brief, history of the district is given as under.

Ancient Period

The excavations carried out by the Archeological Department, Punjab, at the various places of Malerkotla Tehsil of Sangrur District, give sufficient proof that the district is quite rich in ancient history. From the close of scrutiny of the available data, the researchers have traced the ancient history of the district from the pre-harappan period. Almost the whole of the excavated places fall in Malerkotla Tehsil of the Sangrur Deistrict. The important sites so far excavated in the Malerkotla Tehsil are as under

(1) Rohira
(2) Mahorana
(3) Bhudan
(4) Bahwa
(5) Bhasaur
(6) Dhingri
(7) Jandali
(8) Malaud Rorian (Theh Loharan)
(9) Mohammadpur

It lies about 6 Km From Mandi Ahmadgarh and about 13 km from Malerkotla. It is situated along the line of depression which follows the ancient course of river Saituj. It is worthwhile to mention here that it was near Rohira that thousanids of Sikhs were massacred by Ahmad Shah Abdali in a great holocaust known as Wada Ghallugghara, in 1762. Recently, an exiting discovery of a pre-Harappan settlement - a pre-cursor of 'the Indus Valley of Harappan civilisation has bcen made at an ancient mound at Ruhira which has now emerged as tJie second important pre-Harappan site in. India. Kalibaugan in the Sriganganagar area of Rajasthan was the first site to reveal an important pre-Harappan settlement after 10 years of continuous excavation, Experts believe that from the Kalibangan area, pre-Harappan people started moving in the northern or northern -eastern direction along some of the streams which have now dried up. The ancient water courses are marked by ranges of sand dunes. The different stages of this movement towards the Satluj have remained uninvestigated so far.

District Administration

Introduction

The district is the basic unit of administration. The Deputy Commissioner, Sangrur, as head of the district administration, is a functionary of the State Government, under the administrative control of Divisional Commissioner, Patiala. He has wide powers and manifold responsibilities. In many ways he is chief custodian of law and authority, the pivot on which runs the local administration.

The main functions of the Deputy Commissioner may be broadly categorised as : co-ordination of development and public welfare activities as Deputy Commissioner, revenue officer/Court of the district as District Collector, and law and order functions as District Magistrate. Thus, he acts as Deputy Commissioner, District Collector and District Magistrate on different occasions. His role in each of these capacities is described, in brief, as under:

Deputy Commissioner

He is the executive of the district with numerous responsibilities in the sphere of civil administration, development, panchayats, local bodies, etc. Due to immense importance of his office, the Deputy Commissioner is considered to be the measuring rod of efficiency in administration.

The Deputy Commissioner has an Office Superintendent under him, to supervise the work of the clerical staff. He guides functioning of different branches of his office. Each branch is headed by an Assistant and is functionally known after him. For example, the branch looked after by Establishment Assistant (EA) is known as the EA Branch, the one under Miscellaneous Assistant is known as the MA Branch, etc. etc. An Assistant has to perform two types of functions-supervisory and dispositive i.e. he has to supervise the work of the officials working under him, and also to dispose of many cases either at his level or by putting them up to his senior officers. An Assistant has one or more Clerks under him.

The number of branches in the office of the Deputy Commissioner differs from district to district depending upon the requirements in each case, but more important branches existing in almost all the districts are, Establishment Branch, Nazarat Branch, Sadr Kanungo Branch, Development Branch, Miscellaneous Branch, Licensing Branch, Complaints and Enquiries Branch, Local Funds Branch, District Revenue Accounts Branch, Flood Relief Branch, Revenue Records Branch, Records and Issue Branch, Sadr Copying Agency, Registration Branch, Peshi Branch, etc.

Fairs & Festivals

Fairs and festivals are as old as mankind, arising from the innate desire to congregate and divert from the humdrum routine of life. They provide as index "to 'the cultural, social and domestic life of the people. Many among them are based on legends and aim at propitiating deities and persons believed to be blessed with supernatural powers, and invoking them for the grant of desires and for warding off troubles and curing aliments. With the spread of knowledge and gradual control of man over elements of nature and disease, the faith in old legends is waning, and consequently' there are signs of some of the fairs and festivals fast losing in importance. It is valuable to record these legends and fairs and festivals before they completely fade away, since they portray the flight of human imagination whom it was not 'polluted' by rationalism

Festivals of socio-religious nature provide an atmosphere of devotion and enjoyment. Some festivals mark the seasonal changes and some are local in character and are associated with some place, saint or pir. The fairs and festivals attracting large gatherings are taken advantage of by Government, religious and social organisations, and business firms, for doing publicity.

As in the adjoining districts, the religious festivals are celebrated with great enthusiasm in the district. Gurpurbs are the largest religious festivals of the Sikhs which are celebrated with great devotion and love for the Gurus. A large number of Hindus also participate in these celebrations. Big diwans are held on the birthdays of Guru Nanak Dev and Guru Gobind Singh and on the martrydom days of Guru Arjan DEV and Guru Tegh Bahadur. The Gurpurb of Guru Ravi Dass is also celebrated in February, with great enthusiasm. People also show great enthusiasm in celebrating the religious festivals of Shivratri, Holi, Janam Ashtami,akhi, Dussehra, Diwali, Tikka, Ram Naumi, Nirjala -Ekadashi, Guga Naumi, etc. The seasonal stivals of Lohri, Maghi, Basant and Baisakhi are also celebrated with a good deal of fanfare.

Janam Ashtmi of Sangrur deserves special mention. Virtually, the whole population of Sangrur, belonging to different religions and castes, participates in its celebrations. The fair Guga Naumi is held at many places in the district. Dussehra is celebrated almost in all towns of the district with great pump and show.

In Sangrur District, and especially in Malerkotla, there is a good number of Mohammedans. Actually, Sangrur is the only district in the Punjab where Mohammedans are in insignificant number. They celebrate their festivals with a good deal of emotions. Their important festivals are Moharram, Shab-i-Brat, Ramzan, Id-ul-Fitr and Id-ul-Zuha.

Among the Jains, Mahavir Jayanti is celebrated by taking out a procession of pictures of Lord Mahavir. The Jains observe fasts on that day. The Jyanti falls in the month of Chaitra, (March-April) and is celebrated with great enthusiasm at Moonak.

The national festivals are the Republic , Day (26 January), Independence Day (15 August) and birthday of Mahatma Gandhi (2 October). In fact, besides people, Government machinery is actively involved in the celebration of national festivals.

Besides the above fairs and festivals, there are certain local fairs which are celebrated by the people in the district.

To commemorate martyrdom of sixty-six Namdharis in connection with anti-cow slaughter movement, 'Kukas' Martyrdom Day' or 'Kuka Fair' is held at Malerkotla on January 17 and 18 everyyear (68 Namdharis were gunned down by British Government on 17 and 18 January 1872) Basant Panchami fair is held at Malerkotla at the Smadh of Baba Roda. Another local religious fair 'Mela Hazrat Sheikh Sadr-ud-Din' is also hold at Malerkotla in the memory of Sheikh Sadr-un-Din who founded Malerkotla State during the time of Bahlol Lodhi. The festival of Nirjla Ikadashi is also celebrated with much enthusiasm. It is celebrated at the smadh of Bawa Atma Ram where devotees take a sacred bath and make offerings of flowers and patashas at the smadh.

In Sangrur Tahsil, at Nankiana Sahib, a big 'Baisakhi' fair is held.

The 'Gugga Mari' fair at Gharachoo (Tahsil Sangrur) attracts a large number of people. It is held in the month of August-September for a period of four days. Another fair known as 'Mela Kuti' is also held at Gharachon for a period of three days in the month of February-March. It is celebrated both by the Hindus and the Sikhs, especially Ghuman Jats, The devotees make offerings at the smadh of Baba Faqiria who lived here 400—500 years ago. On this occasion singing and gidha parties show their performance ; wrestling matches held on this occasion attract a large number of spectators.

A big fair known as 'Mela Gurudwara Bhai Mani Singh' is held at Longowal in the month of November-December for a period of three days to commemorate the martyrdom of Bhai Mani Singh. Wrestling, kabaddi and other games are the characteristic features of this fair. 'Mela Kali Devi' and 'Janam Ashtami' are also important fairs of Sangrur proper. In Sunam proper, 'Mela Smadh' fair is held in September-October for one day at the smadh of a Saint named Baba Mansa Ram. Another fair known as 'Mela Pir Banoi' is held in the month of March-April for a period of three days in the memory of Pir Khawaja Mahmood Banoi whose tomb exists there. However, with fee migration of Mohammedan population to Pakistan, the importance of this local fair has considerably decreased. To commemorate the martyrdom of Udham Singh who shot dead Sir Michael O' Dwyer, the man behind the Jallian-Wala-Bagh tragedy of 1919, Udham Singh Memorial Tournament is held for a period of four days, from 23 January to 26 January at Sunam.

A big fair called "Mahavir Jayanti' is held at Moonak to celebrate birh anniversary of Lord Mahavir, the founder of Jainism. In Barnala Tahsil, a national fair known as 'Shaheedi Dihara Sardar Sewa Singh' is celebrated at village Thikriwala in January-February for three days. The recital of Guru Granth Sahib, poetic symposium, lectures on the life of Sardar Sewa Singh and competitions in kabaddi, wrestling, horse riding, and singing are the special features of this fair. This fair is held to commemorate the martyrdom of Sardar Sewa Singh who formed Praja Mandal in the then Patiala State and pressed the political and other demands of the public before the then ruler Maharaja Bhupinder Singh. He was put behind the bars where he went on hunger strike and died. A fair known as 'Beebrian Da Mela' is held at Sehna in memory of young women who burnt themselves alive in the fire at this place and in whose honour a temple exists there. The fair of 'Chet Chaudash' is held at Tapa in March-April in memory of Baba Sukha Nand. People of Tapa have great faith in him and do not take false oaths if the name of Baba Sukha Nand is invoked.

A very big fair called 'Jor Mela Mastuana Sahib is held in the month of February in the memory of Sant Baba Attar Singh who did a tremendous task in the field of education in this backward region. This fair continues for three days and people come in large number from distant places. Poetic symposiums are held on this occasion. This fair is managed by students and teachers of Akal Degree College Mastuana. In the predominantly agricultural district of Sangrur, cattle shows and fairs are not uncommon. Big cattle fairs are held at Sangrur, Dhanaula, Lehragaga, Sunam, Bhawanigarh, Malerkotla, Bhadaur, Barnala and Dhuri

Tourism

  • Wadda Ghallunghara

    Qila Mubarak

    Responding to a plea for help by Aqil Das of Jandiala, Ahmad Shah Abdali rushed down south with an intention to exterminate the Sikhs. Realizing the danger, the Sikhs led by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia and Charat Singh Sukharchakia proceeded towards Malwa ...

    Responding to a plea for help by Aqil Das of Jandiala, Ahmad Shah Abdali rushed down south with an intention to exterminate the Sikhs. Realizing the danger, the Sikhs led by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia and Charat Singh Sukharchakia proceeded towards Malwa after crossing the Satluj with the objective of sending their families to the safety of the wastelands of Malwa before confronting the invader. Ahmed Shah instructed Zain Khan, the faujdar of Sirhind, and Bhikhan Khan, chief of Malerkotla, to keep the Sikhs engaged till his arrival. Taking a light cavalry force Abdali set out at once and covering a distance of 200 km including Iwo river crossings in less than forty eight hours, caught the Sikhs by surprise between the villages of Kup Kalan and Rohira, 12 km north of Malerkotla, at dawn on the 5th of February 1762.

    Patiala Having to protect the slow moving vaheer or baggage train including women, children, old men and other non-combatants, the Sikhs could not resort to their usual hit-and-Fun tactics, and a stationary battle against such superior numbers was inadvisable. Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia decided that all misls combining to form a single force should make a cordon around the vaheer and start moving towards Barnala. Thus "fighting while moving and moving while fighting." says Ratan Singh Bhangu, "they kept the vaheer marching, covering it as a hen covers its chickens under its wings." On several occasions, the Shafts troops broke the cordon and butchered the helpless non-combatants, but every time the Sikh warriors rallied and pushed back the attackers. Almost 25,000 Sikhs lost their lives in this day-long battle.

    This carnage is referred to as Wadda Ghallughara or major holocaust. Chardi kala of this vibrant faith is apparent in the aftermath. According to Sikh tradition, a Sikh who had survived, but lost one leg in the melee, was passing through the heaps of dead bodies the evening after the massacre. As he was surrounded by his slain comrades, he paused for a moment and offered a prayer to Akal Purakh. It began with these famous words: Now all the fruit that is unfit to eat has been shaken from the tree, in other words, this was a prayer of thanks to Akal Purakh, through whose grace the Khalsa was now purified of those who were unable to persevere in the midst of harsh Oppression.

    Architecture

    The nodal feature of the complex is the memorial tower placed at the highest point of the site. The tower is a hollow structure of reinforced concrete and marble rising about 53 feet, Landscaping is an integral part and intricate patterns are laid out. Series of terraces are created leading to the memorial tower. An auditorium Facilitates hosting of lectures, demonstrations, seminars and theatrical performances. The oval shaped auditorium with excellent acoustics is designed for 250 people. The curved rows are preferred for comfort and easy vision. The interpretation centre offers temporary and permanent displays, library, archives, research centre and related infrastructure.

Tour Operators

Mr. Naresh Kumar
Kathuria Travels
Patiala Gate,
Near Canara Bank,
Sangrur.
Ph. (01672) 503879, 503079
kathuriatravel@yahoo.co.in

Guides

Mr Sarbjit Singh

(M)- 94177-28821, 98760-28622
V.P.O-Bardwal Teh. Dhliri, Distt-Sangrur

Mr Parminder Thind (Nature Guide)

Email ID: mail2yashu@gmail.com
(M)- 98727-79429
H.No.A-101, Officer Colony, Sangrur (Pb.)

Punjab
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