About The Capital
Chandigarh, the dream city of India's first Prime Minister, Sh. Jawahar Lal Nehru, was planned by the famous French architect Le Corbusier. Picturesquely located at the foothills of Shivaliks, it is known as one of the best experiments in urban planning
and modern architecture in the twentieth century in India. Chandigarh derives its name from the temple of "Chandi Mandir" located in the vicinity of the site selected for the city. The deity 'Chandi', the goddess of power and a fort of 'garh' laying beyond
the temple gave the city its name "Chandigarh-The City Beautiful".
The city has a pre-historic past. The gently sloping plains on which modern Chandigarh exists, was in the ancient past, a wide lake ringed by a marsh. The fossil remains found at the site indicate a large variety of aquatic and amphibian life, which was
supported by that environment. About 8000 years ago the area was also known to be a home to the Harappans.
Since the medieval through modern era, the area was part of the large and prosperous Punjab Province which was divided into East & West Punjab during partition of the country in 1947. The city was conceived not only to serve as the capital of East Punjab,
but also to resettle thousands of refugees who had been uprooted from West Punjab.
In March, 1948, the Government of Punjab, in consultation with the Government of India, approved the area of the foothills of the Shivaliks as the site for the new capital. The location of the city site was a part of the erstwhile Ambala district as per
the 1892-93 gazetteer of District Ambala. The foundation stone of the city was laid in 1952. Subsequently, at the time of reorganization of the state on 01.11.1966 into Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pardesh, the city assumed the unique distinction of being
the capital city of both, Punjab and Haryana while it itself was declared as a Union Territory and under the direct control of the Central Government.
The basic geographical and demographic profile of Chandigarh is as under:
||114 sq kms
||760 47' 14E
||300 44' 14N
||304-365 meters above MSL with 1% drainage gradient
|Annual Rainfall (average)
Winter Min. (Nov.-Jan, 2006) 10 C-160 C
Summer Max. (April-July, 2004) 270C-440C
||From the North West to South East in Winter and reverse in Summer
|Total Population (2001 census)
9,00,635 (Rural population-92120 (10.2%)
(Urban population-808515 (89.8%)
|Density of population/sq. km.
|Birth Rate (per 1000)
|Death Rate (per 1000)
|Infant Mortality Rate (per 1000)
|Sex Ratio (females per 1000 males)
|Decennial Population Growth
The Union Territory of Chandigarh is located in the foothills of the Shivalik hill ranges in the north, which form a part of the fragile Himalayan ecosystem. It is occupied by Kandi (Bhabhar) in the north east and Sirowal (Tarai) and alluvial plains in the
remaining part. The subsurface formation comprises of beds of boulders, pebbles, gravel, sand, silt, clays and some kankar. The area is drained by two seasonal rivulets viz. Sukhna Choe in the east and Patiala-Ki-Rao Choe in the west. The central part forms
a surface water divide and has two minor streams. The stream passing through the central part is called N-Choe and the other is Choe Nala which initiates at Sector 29.
Chandigarh falls under Koeppen's CWG category i.e. it has cold dry winter, hot summer and sub tropical monsoon. Evaporation usually exceeds precipitation and the weather is generally dry.
The area experiences four seasons: (i) Summer or hot season (mid-March to Mid-June) (ii) Rainy season (late-June to mid-September); (iii) Post monsoon autumn/transition season
(mid September to mid-November); (iv) Winter (mid November to mid-March). The dry spell of summer is long but with the occasional drizzles or thunder storms. May and June are the hottest months of the year with the mean daily maximum & minimum temperatures
being about 370C & 250C, respectively. Maximum temperatures can rise up to 440C. Southwest monsoons with high intensity showers commence in late June. The weather at this time is hot and humid. The variation in annual rainfall on year to year basis is appreciable
i.e. 700 mm to 1200 mm. The 20 year average rainfall for Chandigarh is 1100.7 mm. January is the coldest month with mean maximum and minimum temperatures being around 230C and 3.60C respectively. Winds are generally light and blow from northwest to southeast
direction with exception of easterly to southeasterly winds that blow on some days during the summer season.
The Master Plan of Chandigarh
Le Corbusier conceived the master plan of Chandigarh as analogous to human body, with a clearly defined head (the Capitol Complex, Sector 1), heart (the City Centre Sector-17),
lungs ( the leisure valley, innumerable open spaces and sector greens), the intellect (the cultural and educational institutions), the circulatory system (the network of roads, the 7Vs) and the viscera (the Industrial Area). The concept of the city is based
on four major functions: living, working, care of the body and spirit and circulation. Residential sectors constitute the living part whereas the Capitol Complex, City Centre, Educational Zone (Post Graduate Institute, Punjab Engineering College, Panjab University)
and the Industrial Area constitute the working part. The Leisure Valley, Gardens, Sector Greens and Open Courtyards etc. are for the care of body and spirit. The circulation system comprises of 7 different types of roads known as 7Vs. Later on, a pathway for
cyclists called V8 were added to this circulation system.
The Capital complex comprises three architectural masterpieces: the "Secretariat", the "High Court" and the "Legislative Assembly", separated by large piazzas. In the heart of the Capital Complex stands the giant metallic sculpture of The Open Hand, the
official emblem of Chandigarh, signifying the city's credo of "open to given, open to receive".
The city centre (Sector 17) is the heart of Chandigarh's activities. It comprises the Inter-State Bus Terminus, Parade Ground, District Courts, etc. on one hand, and vast business and shopping center on the other. The 4-storey concrete buildings house banks
and offices above and showrooms/shops at the ground level with wide pedestrian concourses. The Neelam piazza in the center has fountains with light and water features. Proposal to set up an eleven storey building in Sector 17 is in the offing. Sector 34 is
another newly developed commercial sector.
Ample areas have been provided in the master plan of the Capital for parks. Out of a total area of 20,000 acres acquired for the first phase, about 2000 acres are meant for
development of parks. Leisure Valley, Rajendra park, Bougainvillea Park, Zakir Rose Garden, Shanti Kunj, Hibiscus Garden, Garden of Fragrance, Botanical Garden, Smriti Upavan, Topiary garden and Terraced Garden are some of the famous parks of Chandigarh. Sukhna
Lake, Rock Garden, Government Museum and Art Gallery are major tourist attractions of Chandigarh.
One unique feature in the layout of Chandigarh is its roads, classified in accordance with their functions. An integrated system of seven roads was designed to ensure efficient traffic circulation. Corbusier referred to these as the 7'Vs. the city's vertical
roads run northeast/southwest (the 'Paths'). The horizontal roads run northwest/southwest ('The Margs'). The intersect at right angles, forming a grid or network for movement.
This arrangement of road-use leads to a remarkable hierarchy of movement, which also ensures that the residential areas are segregated from the noise and pollution of traffic.
Each 'Sector' or the neighboured unit, is quite similar to the traditional Indian 'mohalla', Typically, each sectors measures 800 metres by 1200 metres, covering 250 acres of area. Each Sector is surrounded by V-2 or V-3 roads, with no buildings opening
on to them. Access from the surrounding roads is available only at 4 controlled points, which roughly mark the middle of each side. Typically a sector is divided in four parts by a V-4 road running from east to west and a V-5 road running from north to south.
These four parts are easily identifiable as A, B, C and D corresponding to North, East, South and West sides. Each Sector is meant to be self-sufficient, with shopping and community facilities within reasonable walking distance.
Though educational, cultural and medical facilities are spread all over city, however, major institutions are located in Sectors 10, 11, 12, 14 and 26.
The industrial area comprises 2.35 sq kms, set-aside in the Master Plan for non-polluting, light industry on the extreme southeastern side of the city near the railway line, as far away from the Educational Sectors and Capitol Complex as possible.
Tree plantation and landscaping has been an integral part of the city Master Plan. Twenty six different types of flowering and 22 species of evergreen trees (Sing et. Al., 1998) have been planted along the roads, in parking areas, shopping complexes, residential
areas and in the city parks, to ameliorate the harsh climate of the region, especially the hot and scorching summers.
Population Growth in the City
Chandigarh was planned for a population of half-a-million. In Phase I, 36 sq km of land was acquired by the city administration for construction of 30 sectors. Land for seventeen additional sectors (Sector 31 to 47) was acquired and developed during the
second phase to cater for a population of 350,000. The predominance of ¾ storey apartments in the second phase provide for higher population dimension. However, Chandigarh has now grown beyond its planned capacity. Hence, development in the third phase has
started in sectors 48 and beyond. Demographic data indicate that between 1961 and 1971, the population increased by 144.59 percent, one of the highest for urban areas in India. According to 1981 census, it grew by another 75.55 percent, followed by 42.16 percent
in 1991 and by 40.33 per cent in 2001 (with a total population of 9,00,635). By 2021 the population of Chandigarh is projected to be around 19.5 lacs (at current rate of growth) almost four times for which it was originally built.
'SOMETHING GOOD COMETH OUT OF EVIL'; thus goes the Biblical saying. This legendary proverb aptly describes the birth of the city of Chandigarh, which was conceived immediately after India‘s Independence in 1947. With the partition in the subcontinent, Lahore,
the capital of undivided Punjab fell within Pakistan, leaving East Punjab without a Capital. It was decided to built a new Capital city called Chandigarh about 240 kms. north of New Delhi on a gently sloping terrain with foothills of the Himalayas the Shivalik
range of the North and two Seasonal rivulets flowing on its two sides approximately 7-8 kms apart. The geographical location of the city is 30 degree 50' N latitude and 76 degree 48' longitude and it lies at an altitude varying from 304.8 to 365.76 meters
above sea level.
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Independent India’s first Prime Minister, laid down the founding principles of the new city when he said"Let this be a new town, symbolic of freedom of India unfettered by the traditions of the past…. an expressions of the
nation’s faith in the future". The city is a product of Nehru’s vision.
SELECTION OF SITE
To select a suitable site, the Govt. of Punjab appointed a Committee in 1948 under the Chairmanship of P.L Verma, Chief Engineer to assess and evaluate the existing towns in the State for setting up the proposed capital of Punjab. However, none was found
suitable on the basis of several reasons, such as military vulnerability, shortage of drinking water, inaccessibility, inability to cope in flux of large number of refugees etc. The present site was selected in 1948 taking into account various attributes such
as its Central location in the state, proximity to the national capital & availability of sufficient water supply, fertile of soil, gradient of land for natural drainage, beautiful site with the panorama of blue hills as backdrop & moderate climate.
An American Firm, M/s. Mayer, Whittlessay and Glass was commissioned in 1950 to prepare the Master Plan for the new City. Albert Mayer and Mathew Novicki evolved a fan shaped Master Plan and worked out conceptual sketches of the super block. The super block
was designed as a self –sufficient neighborhood units placed along the curvilinear roads and comprised of cluster type housing, markets and centrally located open spaces. Novicki was tragically killed in an air accident and Mayer decided to discontinue. Thereafter,
the work was assigned to a team of architects led by Charles Eduard Jeanneret better known as Le Corbusier in 1951.
He was assisted by three senior architects, Maxwell Fry, his wife Jane B Drew and Corbusier’s cousin, Pierre Jeanneret. These senior architects were supported by a team of young Indian architect and planner consisting of M.N. Sharma, A. R. Prabhawalkar,
U.E. Chowdhary, J.S. Dethe, B.P. Mathur, Aditya Prakash, N.S. Lanbha and others.
The Master Plan was developed by Le Corbusier who also designed the Capital Complex and established the architectural control & design of the main building of the city. The design of housing for Govt. employees, schools, shopping centers, hospitals were
disturbed among the three senior architects.
Maxwell Fry and Jane B. Drew worked for about three years on the project and then left due to their engagements elsewhere. Pierre Jeanneret who ultimately became the Chief Architect and Town Planning Adviser to Govt. of Punjab returned to Switzerland in
1965. M.N. Sharma took over from Pierre Jeanneret as the first Indian Chief Architect of the Project and after the reorganization of the State of Punjab in 1966 and the establishment of Union Territory, Chandigarh, he was appointed as Administrative Secretary
of the Department of Architecture in the Chandigarh Administration. The major buildings designed by these architects are the important landmarks in the city.
- Le Corbusier
- Pierre Jeanneret
- Maxwell Fry
- Jane B. Drew
Le Corbusier's Master Plan
'The Master plan prepared by Le Corbusier was broadly similar to the one prepared by the team of planners led by Albert Mayer and Mathew Novicki except that the shape of the city plan was modified from one with a curving road network to rectangular shape
with a grid iron pattern for the fast traffic roads, besides reducing its area for reason of economy. The city plan was conceived as post war ‘Garden City’ wherein vertical and high rise buildings were ruled out, keeping in view the socio economic-conditions
and living habits of the people.
Due to economic constraints, the master plan was to be realized in two phases, catering to a total population of half a million. Phase-I consisting of 30 low density sector spread over an area of 9000 acres (Sector 1 to 30) for 1,50,000 people whereas Phase-II
consisting of 17 considerably high density Sectors ( Sectors 31 to 47) spread over an area of 6000 acres for a population of 3,50,000.
SECTOR- THE BASIS PLANNING UNIT
The primary module of city’s design is a Sector, a neighborhood unit of size 800 meters x 1200 meters. It is a self-sufficient unit having shops, school, health centers and places of recreations and worship. The population of a sector varies between 3000
and 20000 depending upon the sizes of plots and the topography of the area. The shops are located along the V4 street (shopping street), which runs North-West to South-East across the sector. Every sector is introvert in character and permits only 4 vehicular
entries into its interior.
The shopping street of each sector is linked to the shopping street of the adjoining sectors thus forming one long, continuous ribbon like shopping street. The central green of each Sector also stretches to the green of the next sector
Le Corbusier's traffic system followed Mayer's lines but was more elaborate; he called it Les Sept Voies de Circulation, or Seven Vs. The
rationale of his planning was the motor car. "From his early studies in urbanism, Le Corbusier had identified the motor car as the central factor of modern town planning. His initial, primarily aesthetic, quasi-Futurist response to the motor car and to rapid
movement in the cities had, by 1950, metamorphosed into a theoretical solution to the problems of modern traffic -- a graded system of circulation, from crossing continents to walking to the front door. [As Le Corbusier put it] 'The 7 Vs act in the town plan
as the bloodstream, the lymph system and the respiratory system act in biology. These systems are quite rational, they are different from each other, there is no confusion between them, yet they are in harmony ... It is for us to learn from them when we are
organising the ground that lies beneath our feet. The 7Vs are no longer the sinister instruments of death, but become an organised hierarchy of roads which can bring modern traffic circulation under control'.".
The 7Vs establishes a hierarchy of traffic circulation ranging from : arterial roads (V1), major boulevards (V2) sector definers (V3), shopping streets (V4), neighbourhood streets (V5), access lanes (V6) and pedestrian paths and cycle tracks (V7s and V8s).
The essence of his plan for Chandigarh rests on preserving intact the true functions of these seven types of roads.
The entrance of cars into the sectors, which are exclusively reserved to family life, can take place on four points only; in the middle of the 1,200 meters; in the middle of the 800 meters. All stoppage of circulation shall be prohibited at the four circuses,
at the angles of the sectors. The bus stops are provided each time at 200 meters from the circus so as to served the four pedestrian entrances into a sector. Thus the transit traffic takes place out of the sectors; the sectors being surrounded by four wall-bound
car roads without openings (the V3s).
The road system was so designed that "never a door will open on the surrounding V3s: precisely the four surrounding V3s must be separated from the sector by a blind wall all along." Buses can ply on the V4s, the horizontal connection between contiguous sectors,
but not within the sector interiors.
'The functions of living occupies primary place. Keeping in view the habits of he peoples, Le Corbusier planned that every dwelling should have three elements of Sun, Space and greenery. The housing in the city can be sub-divided into two parts- Government
housing and Private Housing.
The Govt. housing in the city was divided into 13 categories, ranging from the house for the Chief Minister to the two-room house
completer with sanitary facilities, a kitchen, a verandah and a courtyard for the lowest paid employee. The socio economic conditions of the city restricted the height of most of the residential buildings to two to three storeyed structures.
Private House-Controlled Development
In view of the needs of various economic classes, plots of areas ranging from 114sq. mtrs.
To 4500 sq. mtrs. were planned. The living habits of the people are of outdoor type because of hot summers and hot and humid rainy seasons comprising most part of the year.
Keeping this factor in view, Corbusier conceived a series of Architectural Controls / frame controls/ zoning regulations for each and every category of houses in which it was mandatory to provide open to sky courtyard both at he front and rear side of every
house. These courts provided light and ventilation to houses besides serving as private open-to-sky spaces. A series of such houses were planned around community level open space which served the purpose of holding social and religious functions and outdoor
activities and games by children.
The hierarchy of open space is prominently visible in the city. At the city level, the open space consist of the Leisure Valley and special gardens. At sector level, the open space constitute the central green in each sector whereas open space at community
level consist of parks around which clusters of houses re arranged. The smallest category of open space is the courtyards provided in each dwelling on the front and rear side.
In important civic areas, aesthetical harmony between all buildings is a must because architectural is a visual art and the visual impact forms should be as beautiful and organized as can be. Accordingly, to curb undue individualism in the built environment,
Le Corbusier conceived a number of mechanisms to regulate the development of private buildings in the city. These included architectural controls, frame controls and zoning controls in the city. The basic aim was to maintain uniformity in skyline, heights
and the architectural character.
Architectural controls is applicable specially to buildings to be built by private enterprise in special areas of architectural interest such s V-2 roads, V-4 roads, City Centre etc.
Further controls on private construction in the city have been imposed through building bye laws, which govern and lay down the minimum standards of light ventilation, living area and sanitation. Each plot of land in the city is governed by the specific
use and building volume that can be developed on it through ‘zoning restriction’. In small residential houses frames control was devised which is an architectural element limiting projection lines and unifying heights. Opening of desired size and shape may
be arranged within this frame as per individual requirements.
Similarly in shopping street, architectural order is ensured by development of shops as architectural controls. This ensures harmonious development in accordance to the plan.
Chandigarh has four main work centers:
- The Capitol Complex in the north-east
- The Educational institutes in the north-west
- The City Centre in the heart
- The industrial area in the south-east
The Capitol Complex is the focal point if the city, both visually and symbolically whose architectural whose architecture is considering
to be the most representative of Le Corbusier’s work. This complex of Govt. buildings representing all three essential components of a complete democracy the Legislature, the executive and the judiciary stands against the blue silhouette of lower Shivalik
ranges, on the foothills of Himalayas. The Capitol Complex is the embodiment of the spirit of exaltation, power & permanence experienced by Indians on acquiring self government after long, bitter struggle for freedom.
The Capitol area was designed as a great pedestrian plaza with motorized traffic confined to sunken trenches. The complex is planned on a cross axis wherein rigid symmetry has been avoided in placement of various buildings.
The three major components of the Capitol are the Assembly (Legislation), the Secretariat (Administration) and the High Court (Judiciary). While the linear façade of the Secretariat marks the edges of the Complex on the left side, the Assembly and the High
Court are placed on the opposite ends of the Cross axis, facing each other across a 450 mtrs. Esplanade where a number of monuments symbolizing Le Corbusier’s theories of City planning have been placed. These include the Open Hand monument, often called the
B ‘Monument of Chandigarh’ conveying ‘open to give, open to receive’. These symbolic forms were designed by Corbusier as a means to punctuate the axis of the Complex. Other monuments included the Martyrs Memorial- a tribute to the martyrs of the Punjab partition
and the Tower of Shadows – a demonstration of Corbusiers’s theories of sun control.
Another important component of the Capitol, which is yet to be built, is the Museum of Knowledge.
The High Court
The High Court building is L-shaped in plan with the long façade facing the capitol plaza. The building has a rectilinear frame with eight
nos. courtrooms located on the main façade, separated from the larger ‘Chief Justice’ Court by a monumental, pillared entrance, extending to the full height of the entrance. This massive entrance bears a close resemblance to the Buland Darwaza of Fatehpur
The small Courts are 8x8x12 meters. The dimensions of the over all design were governed by the Modular combined with triangular regulating lines.
The design of the High Court is an embodiment of the climate responsive architecture as conceived by Corbusier for the new city. It was planned that the design should permit the government to function through out the year, furnishing protection from the
sun and monsoon rains. Accordingly, double roof was provided, the upper roof placed over the lower roof was provided in the manner of a parasol, shading the lower roof. The space between the two roofs is left open to enable air currents to move. The parasol
roof slopes towards the centre in the form of a row of arches.
The High Court building, when completed in 1956 proved to be insufficient in space. Therefore, an extension (annex) was proposed and completed in 1962 in which additional courtroom spaces were provided, this is a brick structure consisting of a group of
blocks receding to the rear of the High Court block, neither asserting visually, nor disrupting the existing Layout plan.
The Secretariat building is a long, horizontal concrete slab form, 254 meters long and 42 meters high, which marks the edge of the Capitol
Complex on the left side. The building is composed of six eight storeyed blocks separated by expansion joints and bears close resemblance to the Marseilles apartment block, one of Corbusier's earlier projects.
The facade of the building gives a sculptural appearance with exposed concrete ramps, perforated with small square windows dominating the front and rear views. The building façade is provided with projects for sun control.
The Secretariat building helps in defining space of the Capitol Complex. It emphasize a sense of hierarchy of facades and by its sheer cliff like size and volume, completes the vista through distant mountains, where eye is led onwards to the smalle3r, more
significant buildings and space beyond.
The Assembly building, completed in 1962, was conceived as a horizontal rectilinear structure square in plan with a monumental portico facing
the main plaza. The two legislative chambers were conceived as free standing, curvilinear forms enclosed within a rectilinear shell, carrying on one side the entrance portico and on the opposite side of band of offices. Sun protection louvers 'brise soleil'
have been provided on lateral walls for protecting glazings against sun. The two legislative chambers are surrounded by a space 'forum' which serves for circulation as well as informal meetings.
The most impressive part of the Assembly is the Assembly Chamber (Punjab Assembly), which is crowned by a massive hyperbolic tower, extending above the roofline and providing a sculptural & dramatic look against the backdrop of distant hills 128 ft. in diameter
at the base the Assembly chamber rises to 124ft. at its highest point. This building expresses the versatility and plasticity of concrete as a building material. Similarly, the smaller Council Chamber (Haryana Assembly) conceived in a rectilinear frame is
crowned by a pyramidal roof, provided with a North light.
Overall, the Assembly building with nits dramatic skyline is one of the most visually appealing aspects of the Capitol Complex and is an attempt to give an architectural setting of monumental dignity to the functions of the Government.
The University and the Educational Zone
The Panjab University with its various departments and the adjoining various government
technical and non-technical colleges, together form the educational zone of the city. Initially, the plan of the University and temporary Administrative Block was designed by J.K.Chowdhury. The Master Plan was later reorganized by Pierre Jeanneret along with
designing of all major buildings including Gandhi Bhawan and the Administrative Block, Arts and science teaching blocks. In this task he was assisted by B.P.Mathur. The most distinctive and well-known landmark of the Panjab University is the 'Gandhi Bhawan'
building which is lotus shaped, appearing as if floating in a pool of water. Gandhi Bhawan forms the focal point on the main North-East to South-West axis and is of major architectural importance. Adjacent to the university in sector-11 are the two undergraduate
colleges; one for men and the other for women, which were planned by Maxwell Fry.
To the north of the university is located at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research. It is a multi-facility, super speciality referral institute with a 1300 bedded hospital attached to it. This institute put Chandigarh on the medical
map of India and patients come here from all over the country. The first phase of the including the Hospital and Research Blocks were designed by Pierre Jeanneret, in which he was assisted be Jeet Malhotra and H.S.Chopra. After Jeanneret left, the remaining
works were done by M.N.Sharma who was the Chief Architect and was assisted by O.P.Mehta.
The City Center
The City Centre representing the heart of the city lies at the intersection of two main axial
Roads, Madhya Marg and Jan Marg. Designed on a monumental scale of uniform four-storied concrete buildings, it is laid out along four pedestrian promenades intersecting at a nodal point, where all civic buildings are located. There is a central chowk or a
piazza marking the crossing of two-wi9de pedestrian ways running north-east to south-west and north-west to south-east. Around this chowk are created the most important civic and commercial buildings, the town hall, the central library and the General Post
and Telegraph office, large cinemas, commercial houses and banks.
Besides the monuments that mark the large piazza, there are a number of attractive structures in the piazza. The City Centre contains large shopping stores, office buildings, banks and cinemas and other public buildings. The three water fountains amidst
the central piazza or the chowk are the focal point of the sector, which were designed by M. N. Sharma. The city centre is landscaped with trees, which presents a subtle contrast of form and colour against the concrete facades. This sector also houses the
district courts, the central police station and the inter-state bus terminus.
Located in, the south-east side of the city close to the railway station and wholesale markets of the city, the Industrial Area provides easy access to the goods, transport centre and wholesale market. Its location while planning was decided after taking
into account factors such as the proximity on the access road for the entry of raw materials and exit of finished goods without having to go through the populated streets disturbing the peace of the town, thus keeping the pollution zone away from the city.
Further, a buffer zone has been provided between the industrial area and the residential and administrative spaces.
Soon after the decision to build a new capital city was taken, an apex body called "The Secretariat Committee of the Capital Project"
was formed to steer the course of development of the city. In the draft instructions formulated by it on the nature of physical development of Chandigarh, the idea of having a Garden City was mooted. The quest for 'Garden City' by the developers was because
of the colonies developed by the British had the look of broad shady tree lined avenues, bungalows with sprawling open spaces, which had a strong impact on the minds of Chandigarh's founding fathers.
The Rose Garden
Serenity and city - are two opposite things. However this phenomenon is belied in the City Beautiful. The numerous picturesque
greens in the city enable the citizens to get away from the daily grind and merge with the nature. Whether it is a morning walk or evening walk through the Rose Garden in the leisure valley, all provide an invigorating experience. The rose garden designed
by M.N.Sharma was built as a part of the green belt and has a large variety of roses and a large fountain to relax the soul. Every walk through the garden is a lively freshening experience. The large stretch of greens dotted with bountiful flowers of varying
hues lends a great place, which attracts many people.
Sukhna Lake is a large man made water body conceived by Le Corbusier on the North East face of the City. It is fed by water from the
Catchment area of the seasonal rivulets on the foothills of the Shivaliks. It is a major recreation zone of the city and offers best in water sports, pedestrian and various other sports activities.
The Rock Garden
Spread over the several acres, this fantasyland designed by Padam Shri Nek Chand is a vast open-air museum that showcases a vast
array of natural rock forms and stones. The Rock Garden was not a part of the original Master Plan as conceived by Le Corbusier. The layout of the garden is based on the fantasy of the lost kingdom. The moment one enters the garden; the small entrance doors
that make the heads bow create an ambience of royal grandeur and humbleness. One has to pass through a variety of doorways, archways, vestibules, streets and lanes of different scale dimensions, each one opening into a new array of displays or courtyards and
chambers lending an air of suspense. The garden consisting of fourteen chambers houses natural rock forms, a pond, and a hut in the main court. Another phase of the garden comprises the grand palace complex, minars; waterfalls, open air theatre, village mountains,
over bridges, pavilions and areas for royal pleasures. The trees and route sculptures offer a powerful counterpoint to the exiting vegetation.
The figures & sculptures made from broken bangles, glass, glazed tiles and electrical fittings are a visual treat and bring out the sheer joy of human creativity.
Le Corbusier conceived the tree plantation and landscaping for the City in harmony with the beautiful natural settings of Shivalik Hills.
He studied the various species of trees, their shapes, foliage and colour of flowers etc. before planning landscape scheme for three great urban elements roads, urban spaces and free spaces such as the leisure valley and the parks. Dr. M. S. Randhawa as Chairman
of Chandigarh Landscape committee was mainly responsible for implementation of landscaping of the city as conceived by Le Corbusier.
The leisure valley is a green sprawling space extending North-East to South-West along a seasonal choe and was conceived by Le Corbusier as the lungs of the city. The fitness trails and the other gardens along the green belt, which passes through the city,
offer quiet a retreat at all hours of the day, orchestrating life's subtler impulses and heightening the spiritual experience.
Tourist Bus Detail
This Coach is one of its first kind in the country and is a major tourist attraction in itself due to its open top roof. The well furnished double decker coach moves in circular route covering all the major tourist destinations in the city.
|Point to Point
|Half a Day
Half day tour which starts from Hotel Shivalikview, Sector-17, Chandigarh covers Zakir Rose Garden (Sector-16), Museum & Art Gallery (Sector-10),War Memorial & Bougainvillea Garden (Sector-03), Rock Garden (Sector-1). and Sukhana Lake.
Note: One hour tour @ Rs.25/- per head and full day tour @ Rs.75/- per head can be booked for a group of minimum 20 persons in advance. During full day tour Gandhi Bhawan,Panjab University (Sector-14) and Capitol Complex( Outer view- Sector
1) are also included.
|First Half day tour
||10.00 A.M. to 01.30 P.M.
|Second Half day tour
||02.30 P.M. to 06.00 P.M.
For details and booking, please contact
Tours & Travel Wing, CITCO,
Room No.84, Inter State Bus Terminus,
Telephone No. 0172- 2703839, 4644484
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
For Local Transportation, Chandigarh Transport Undertaking provides bus services to the general public within the city, Sub Urban area and in adjoining States i.e. Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, J& K, Uttar Pradesh, Rajsthan etc.
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A suitable conglomeration of natural and built environment is essential for every sustainable habitation. Chandigarh's sustainability stems from its modern urbanism planned in harmony with the elements. Unlike old towns and cities of India, it was planned
as a new city unfettered by the traditions of the past, a symbol of India's new found freedom and a step into the future. A number of factors have contributed to it's sustainability: A City with a goal
The city was planned as an administrative center assuring all amenities to all classes of people to lead a dignifies life. The city achieved this agenda with aplomb precision. However, the quest doesn't end here. The city continues to grow in response to
its people's needs and happily, this growth is regulated through an edict to prolong its sustainability.
Suitable Site with climate responsive Architecture
The location of the site of the city has contributed immensely to its sustainability. It had a number of natural advantages such as stability (bearing capacity of soil), favourable water supply conditions, natural ground slope, inexhaustible supply of building
materials in the vicinity etc. The city has an extreme climate-cold winters warm dry summers and the humid monsoon season. Accordingly, the architectural vocabulary for the city's physical environment includes vernacular shading devices and features such as
sunshades (chajjas), fenestrations, parasols, louvers, verandahs, brick jails & courtyards all aimed at natural climate control at micro level.
The city is mostly built in brick, stone and shutter finish concrete, which is not only available in abundance locally but also translates into provocative aesthetic forms. Besides, the less maintenance cost of material furthers the cause of sustainability.
Labour intensive Development with Eco Friendly Techniques
The skyline of the city is predominantly four storeyed achieved through cheap & plentiful manpower. This was also in consonance with the low economy and stringent budget for the new capital. Infact, the low cost materials and techniques employed in building
construction served as a model in other parts of the nation also. Standardisation of building components such as the roof spans, lintel size, door and window opening size and shape ensured quality and cost control.
After Le Corbusier
The reorganization of the State pf Punjab in 1966 resulted in Chandigarh being declared a Union Territory besides serving as Capital of Punjab and the newly created State of Haryana. In the process, Chandigarh became the seat of three governments & gained
in size and stature since it already had a central location in the region and a sublime environment complementing its growth. Dr. M. S. Randhawa took over as the first Chief Commissioner of the new Union Territory and was chiefly instrumental in realization
of the IInd phase in 1968 when M. N. Sharma was the chief architect. This phase of development comprised of 17 Nos. sectors extending from 31 to 47. The feedback which was gained from the development of Phase-I was wisely invested into the planning of this
phase and certain fundamental improvements were envisaged in the Sector layout, housing and commercial environment. This phase was planned for a population of 3.5 lacs with an average density of 60 persons per acre as compared to 17 persons per acres in Phase-I
and comprised of an area of 27 sq. km. The first phase was developed in 43 sq. km. of area.
The development and the character of the IInd phase of Chandigarh that emerged gradually in the three decades of its materialization was largely influenced by the following attributes:
Enormous Population And Development Pressure
The city recorded the highest growth rate (140%) during the decade 1961-71. The ensuring increase in the administrative workforce that brought more families created a market for supporting jobs initiating a population boom. In order to tae advantage of the
development potential, the State of Punjab and Haryana set up new capital city. Migration trends also showed a preference for settlement in the peripheries of Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali, who in turn depended on Chandigarh for infrastructural facilities.
Need For Small Houses
The first phase of the city was sparsely populated with residential plots ranging from 5 marla to 6 kanals. With the immense increase in the population, this trend was reversed and smaller plots, catering to more number of people were planned. The highest
category of plot in this phase in 2 kanals. The frame controls that governed the Marla type houses in Phase-I had second floor as Barsati, which was meant for outdoor sleeping and other activities only. In the new phase, this frame control was redesigned and
provided changed use of space. Open to sky sleeping terraces, so much part of the Indian life, were provided in the control design.
Realizing its social obligation to provide economical housing to all strata of the society, the administration decided to provide multistoreyed housing/flats in the city. During this phase, housing clusters were created depending on the income levels of
its citizens, viz. Lower Income Group (LIG), Middle Income Group (MIG), and so on. This move enabled the Planners to attain desired results; namely, denser development of strong community based living.
Separate Land-use Pattern
The layout & the Architectural character of commercial spaces in the new sectors was very different from that of the initial phase shopping centers. The 'Market Square' concept was introduced for the first time and the facades had more glass in place of
vernacular elements such as louvers & brick jails.
Mixed land-use pattern has always been adopted through ages in most of the ancient cities & towns in the country. This is indicative of the inherent Indian Psyche of closer proximity of living & working space to save on space, time & ensure security with
economic austerity. Accordingly, the first phase sectors had adopted shop-cum-flat (S.C.F.) pattern of shopping concept. These were small brick structures with shop on ground floor, residential facility portion on the 1st floor, and a low height barsati on
2nd floor. No basements were, proposed, keeping in view limited business environment. However, this concept under estimated the mindset of the affluent inhabitants who were used to living in constrained environment and more importantly, it didn't gauge the
tremendous business potential of the city in the days to come.
Thus, the concept of Shop-cum-Office (S.C.O.) was born in the new phase and provided relief to corporate magnates who favoured to locate their regional head offices in this city due to a high degree of livability and high quality of urban infrastructure.
Social and Economic Changes
If the 1st phase can be called a period of controlled growth and economic austerity due to its emphasis on creating Govt. infrastructure and housing, the new phase could easily be termed as a period of affluence, consolidation and prosperity. The size of
the dwelling unit may have come down due to scarcity of land, the area under commercial usage grew leaps & bounds, with special emphasis on service industries such as hotels, banks, private nursing homes & shopping centres in the new sectors.
To provide world class shopping environment for the Southern Sectors, a Sub City Centre in Sector 34 was planned with high rise commercial establishments. This upmarket area provides the best of commercial facilities to Phase-II Sectors and compensates for
their distance from the main City Centre.
Unforeseen Growth - IIIrd Phase is Born
The key to a City's success lies in its ability to adapt according to changing conditions. It must continue to grow and change in response to its people's needs. The influx of people due to accelerated economic activities has led to scarcity of housing resources
in the city. Keeping this in view, IIIrd phase of the city comprising sectors south of 'Vikas Marg' has come into existence. Sectors 48 & 49 are primarily meant for multistoreyed Cooperative Group Housing Schemes, whereas large rehabilitation schemes have
been implemented in Sectors 55 & 56 (Palsora), Kajheri for settlement of migratory population mainly service people, which provide important support in maintaining the City. In all, nine new Sectors have been planned in this phase bordering the boundary with
Edict of Chandigarh
This edict of Chandigarh was prescribed by Mon Le Corbusier, the planner of Chandigarh for its citizens to follow in future The object of this edict is to enlighten the present and future citizens of Chandigarh about the basic concepts of planning of the
city so that they become its guardians and save it from whims of individuals. This edict sets out the following basic ideas underlying the planning of the city.
The city of Chandigarh is planned to human scale. It puts in touch with the infinite cosmos and nature. It provides us with places and buildings for all human activities in which the citizens can live a full and harmonious life. Here the radiance of nature
and heart are within our reach.
The city is composed of sectors. Each sector is ( ½ mile x ¾ mile) 800 meters x 1200 meters enclosed by roads allocated to fast mechanized transport and sealed to direct access from the houses.
Each sector caters for the daily needs of its inhabitants which vary from 5000 to 25000 and has a green strip oriented longitudinally stretching centrally along the sector in the direction of the mountains. The green strip should stay un-interrupted of the
mountains. The green strip should stay un-interrupted and accommodate schools, sports, walks and recreational facilities for the sector.
Vehicular traffic is completely forbidden in the green strips where tranquility shall reign and the curse of noises shall not penetrate.
The roads of the city are classified into seven categories known as systems of 7 Vs as below:
- V-1 Fast roads connecting Chandigarh to other towns.
- V-2 Arterial roads.
- V-3 Fast vehicular sector dividing roads.
- V-4 Meandering shopping streets.
- V-5 Sector circulation roads.
- V-6 Access roads to houses.
- V-7 Foot paths and cycle tracks.
Buses will only ply on V-1, V-2, V-3 and V-4 roads. A wall shall seal the V-3 roads form the sector.
Areas of special Architectural interest.
Certain areas of Chandigarh are of special architectural interest where harmonized and unified composition of building is aimed at. Absolute architectural and zoning control should remain operative.
Along V-2 central (Dual carriage-ways, Madhya Marg and Uttar Marg where sky-line heights, character and architecture of buildings as planned shall not be altered.
No building shall be constructed north of the Capitol Complex.
Along V-2 beyond dual carriage way, areas are reserved for cultural institutions only and shall never have any residential buildings.
The central plaza in Sector-17 was designated by Le Corbusier as " Pedestrians Paradise”. No vehicular traffic will be permitted in the plaza.
Only such industries as are powered by electricity would be permitted in the Industrial Areas so that atmosphere is saved from pollution.
The lake is a gift of the creators of Chandigarh to the citizens to be at one with nature, away from the hubbub of city life. There shall be no commercial exploitation of the lake and its environment and its tranquility shall be guaranteed by banning noises.
The landscaping of this city bases on careful observation of the vegetation of India. Selected ornamental trees, shrubs and climbers have been planted according
of colour schemes to beautify it. In future planting and replacement, these principles must be kept in view. There should be no haphazard replacement so that the avenues retain their harmony and beauty.
The Leisure Valley, the Rajindra Park and other parks shall be developed as parks only and no building other than already planned shall be permitted.
No Personal Statue Be Erected
The age of personal statues is gone. No personal statues shall be erected in the city or parks of Chandigarh. The city is planned to breathe the new sublimated spirit of art. Commemoration of persons shall be confined to suitably placed bronze plaques.
Truthfulness of Building Materials to be Maintained.
The truthfulness of materials of constructions, concrete, bricks and stone shall be maintained in all buildings and constructed or to be constructed.
The Union Territory of Chandigarh has a total area of 114 sq. kms and has witnessed decennial population growth (1991-2001) of 44.33% . It had a population of 9,00,914 in the last census. Chandigarh is unique, because it is the capital of two state governments,
Punjab and Haryana. Chandigarh is a planned city, with a high standard of civic amenities. Chandigarh's infrastructure was originally planned for a population of 5 lakh, but the city has expanded rapidly over the last three decades and faces problems common
to other growing cities in India, including the proliferation of slums and squatter settlements. Despite these problems,
Chandigarh ranks first in India in the Human Development Index, quality of life and e-readiness.
Keeping in view the need for the investment of investible surplus, we have taken a number of major initiatives to upgrade the infrastructure in Chandigarh, to boost economic growth in the region. Chandigarh is emerging as a regional hub in the areas of service
industry, education, health, information technology, food and vegetable processing etc. Chandigarh’s plan priorities clearly focus on the targets and objectives contained in the National Common Minimum Programme.
Chandigarh’s economy is changing in character as the knowledge revolution sweeps the country. In the last decade, the traditional industrial activity has not seen that rapid an increase as was seen in the activities relating to the services sector.
Right from the day the foundation of the city was laid in 1952, the Administration has been successful in transforming this city into a world class city, which can be depicted by the following Fact File:
- Number 1 in the country in terms of Human Development Index
- Chandigarh has been rated as the "Wealthiest Town” of India. In terms of family wealth, it was rated as the sixth most prosperous city.
- Good Governance- A compact, efficient Administration having Quick Decision making system
- Bank Deposits- USD 4 billion with 227 branches
- Education: Seat of the prestigious Panjab University from where 145 Ph.D pass out in various disciplines, with Two prestigious Engineering Colleges with 400 Engineers passing out every year. PGI ME&R- Prestigious Medical Research Institute of the country
is situated in this city. Apart from various Colleges in the Science, Commerce and Humanities fields, One Architecture College and one College of Fine Arts add to the high value education institutes in the city.
- Health: 5 Big Govt. Hospitals in the City; PGI, General Multi-Speciality Hospital, Sector 16, General Medical College & Hospital, Sector 32; One Hospital each in the field of Homeopathy & Ayurveda. Apart from these, there are various other Hospitals in
the private sector.
- Research Institutes: IMTECH, CSIO, NIPER all add to the value added Research facilities provided by the city.
- Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is growing @ 16.06% in the year 2004-05 against all India Growth of 8.2%.
|Density of Population-2001 Census (Km2)
|Literacy Rate (%)
|Per Capita Income (Rs.) (At Current Prices)
(Highest in All India)
|Bank branches/ 1000 persons
|Credit-Deposit Ratio (%)
|Per Capita Consumption of Electricity (2004)
|Hospital Beds /10000 persons
|Birth Rate/1000 persons
|Infant Mortality Rate/ 1000 live births
INITIATIVES OF CHANDIGARH ADMINISTRATION
Changing Employment Patterns
RGCTP has been conceived with an idea of creating employment and it is expected that once RGCTP is completed more than 25000 professionals would be working here. Already 4500 professionals are working in RGCTP at present. As a natural corollary to creation
of a single job in the IT sector, 3 other indirect jobs per one job in IT sector are created and as such 15000 jobs were created indirectly.
Providing Essential Public Services to the Poor
Under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 10,400 children have been enrolled and the ambit of SSA is spreading its wings to cover all the out of school children/ drop-outs by the end of this financial year. To accomplish this task a house-hold survey has been initiated
which will detect the out of school children. To encourage literacy amongst the illiterate adults, different schemes in collaboration with Govt. of India are being launched every year. Literacy centers are being opened in all the nook and corner of the city
so that every adult can be educated and provided basic minimum educational qualification.
- General Hospital Sector 16 has been upgraded to General Multi Speciality Hospital, so as to provide quality health care to the underprivileged.
- General Medical College & Hospital Sector 32 and General Multi Speciality Hospital Sector 16 would be looking after the primary and secondary health care needs.
- PGI ME&R would be upgraded to a world class Referral Hospital, where only complicated medical cases would be referred from the Region.
- A Complete study of the integration of the Health Care systems has been made by Director, PGI ME&R and the same has been sent to Government of India.
- This study has also identified the need for another Medical Education Centre, and a project for Rs 240 Cr has been prepared which will be implemented under the PPP model.
- A massive drive has been started to ensure that all children are given the benefit of our medical system and this drive will cover 1.5 lakh children.
- To tackle the problem of malnutrition, the whole mid-day meal scheme has been revamped, starting with Non recognized schools with 50000 students and gradually this scheme will be extended to the 104 Government schools as well.. The daily expenditure per
child is Rs. 7 out of which the GOI subsidy component is Rs. 1.50. Some of our Institutes and Corporations have been given this responsibility of partially funding this endeavor.
- Tele-medicine project has been undertaken so as to integrate the IT services with the medical services.
Increasing Manufacturing Competitiveness
As a Long term measure, Chandigarh Administration has initiated the conversion of all bitumen roads into RCC roads. We are also using plastic waste in road
construction and propose to rehabilitate our rag pickers in a planned colony. The Engineering Department will purchase plastic waste from the rag pickers and use in the construction of roads.
- Long term tie ups have been made with all the Power Corporations, so as to ensure uninterrupted power supply to the City.
- Talks are going on with GAIL for a dedicated gas pipeline to the city for setting up of 250 MW Power plant.
- In touch with foreign companies for harnessing the Solar energy, which will include setting up a plant for manufacture of Solar Photovoltaic Cells.
- Power T & D losses have been brought down from 24% to 19%, which will be further brought down to 16%.
Rajiv Gandhi Chandigarh Technology Park
- The Phase I of the RGCTP has been fully developed and it has been accorded the SEZ status. The same has been anchored by Infosys with a state of the art building ready for occupation. 15 other BTS sites have been allotted to prominent IT companies.
- A state of the art Entrepreneurs Development Centre is coming up on a 1.5 acre plot at a cost of Rs 16 Cr, which will have plug n play facilities for upcoming entrepreneurs.
- The Phase II of the RGCTP is under development and has also been accorded SEZ status by GOI. Wipro is the anchor company for Phase II, and Tech Mahindra, Bharti and eSys are the co-anchors.
- DLF Info city has built up a state of art building on 12.5 acres plot having a covered area of 6,00,000 sq. ft for the use of IT companies. Big names like IBM Daksh, Infosys, Tech Mahindra, eSys , Net Solutions, Virsa Systems, etc have already starting
functioning from this Centre.
- Keeping in view the demand for more IT space Phase - III of RGCTP has been planned for which 270 Acres of land is to be acquired. The acquisition process has already begun.
- Till now Rs. 700 Cr has already been invested in RGCTP. Once completed, the RGCTP will bring in an investment of Rs. 5000 crores, apart from bringing in 25000 IT professionals.
Developing Human Resources
- A new state of the art Education City is coming up, which will have world class educational faculty and excellent infrastructure.
- PEC-Punjab Engineering College which is an autonomous deemed University will be soon upgraded to IIT status, enabling delivery of more value added education.
- Setting up a IIM level Management Institute and a branch of the National Institute of Design
- Partnership with Private Sector for providing IT education to young students. Infosys has already launched the programme ”Catch Them Young” whereby entrance test is conducted in all the schools of the city and the students selected are given free of cost
in-house training in Infosys. Intel Learn is providing IT education to teachers of the Govt schools, who will inturn provide IT education in the rural areas. The Administration is also in the process of upgrading select Government schools as Smart Schools,
where IT programmes would be launched for the betterment of the school going children.
- C-TOSS, a programme for upgrading the soft skills, for urban and rural areas enhancing employability of students under PPP model.
Protecting the Environment
- Botanical Garden has been developed on 178 acres in village Sarangpur, which will consist of 15 botanical sections and other features to promote eco tourism.
- 3 Lakes, two along Patiala ki Rao and 1 along Sukhna Choe are being undertaken , as a part of environmental related initiatives.
- A Project for augmentation of the Water Supply has been prepared and sent to GOI under JNNURM for approval. This will go a long way in contributing towards Rain water Harvesting, Ground Water Charging and also reducing our dependence on pumping out Ground
- Tertiary Water treatment plan is also under implementation which will cater to the needs of supporting 2000 parks/gardens in the city.
Improving Rehabilitation and Resettlement Practices
- To ensure harmonization between the old and new, we have activated the Chandigarh Perspective which has representatives of all professional and social sectors and includes members of Le Corbusier’s initial team of eminent architects.
- Comprehensive Plans are in various stages of implementation in the field of Housing especially to cater to the needs of the incoming IT professionals.
- FAR has been standardized across the city.
- Self Certification of Building Plans by registered Architects.
- Promulgation of suitably modified building bye laws which have redressed long standing demand of majority of people. These bye laws also cover the conversion of Industrial Areas into Commercial Areas so that it can be upgraded to the same level as the new
construction and this has had a very good response.
- Rehabilitation of slum dwellers is being undertaken in a massive way, which involves construction of 18000 flats for which a complete new model has been worked out. Past experience has been that the slum dwellers had to take loans from the unorganized sector,
who got into benami transactions, resulting in the flats going into wrong hands. Under the new model, the slum dwellers would be allotted flats on rent basis which shall be non-transferable. This project will also include a home for rehabilitation of 1000
destitute children. We are also creating facilities for 1000 mentally retarded children and 1000 crippled children, both of which will have a percentage of vacancies for adults and destitute.
- Upgradation of Rehabilitation Colonies is proposed to be launched in a big way.
Participation of Citizens in Decision Making
Chandigarh Administration has instituted a consultative process as broad based as possible involving people with varied expertise and experience in specialized subjects in public affairs so that aspirations of all sections of the society are reflected in
governmental decisions. This initiative has successfully given a sense of participation to citizens in decision making processes making them seamless and transparent. Such initiatives include constitution of Administrator’s Advisory Council including its sub
groups on various issues of public concern, Chandigarh Perspective and Environmental Committee on Preservation of Ecology of Sukhna Lake.
The burning issue of tackling corruption, needs our concentration. There needs to be a wide spread campaign, at the National and State levels with important functionaries of the Government at all levels introducing citizens charters and the Right to Information,
which should be widely publicized to increase awareness amongst the public so that the general public is not forced to succumb to corrupt officials. Concrete steps, like deterrent, punishment, as also incentives for honest officials, would also be effective.
The issue needs to be taken up at the national level, so that there is a concerted effort among all levels of Government to rid the system of corrupt officials in particular and corruption as a whole. The Chandigarh Administration has incorporated all these
measures to ensure a transparent, responsive and completely accountable Government.
Regaining Agricultural Dynamism
To support the crop diversification programme undertaken by both Punjab & Haryana, we are in the final stages of setting up of Terminal Market for Fruit & Vegetables for which preliminary discussions have been held with the GOI. The Administration is also
putting together a Milk Village so that all UT Villages are cleaned up. A modern dairy system for Chandigarh villages is being introduced. Expressions of Interest are being invited for setting up a high value product Milk Processing Plant.
Disparities and Divides
Chandigarh’s plan priorities clearly focus on the target and objectives contained in the National Common Minimum Programme. We are aiming at three areas i.e. Human Development, Infrastructure, and Environment Upgradation and Protection. Despite facing many
challenges, the Chandigarh Administration is constantly working towards improving the quality of life of the residents and preserving the unique character of the city of Chandigarh.
- Upgradation of Chandigarh Airport to international standards is under implementation with the first step of transfer of 8.5 acres land to the AAI. Chandigarh Administration will be allotting equal area to Air Force and Army in lieu of this land. This will
augment the physical connectivity of Chandigarh to the world and fulfill a long term need and considerably enhance export potential of this Region.
- As a Long term measure, Chandigarh Administration has initiated the conversion of all bitumen roads into RCC roads.
- Nehru Centre for Performing Arts is being set up in Sector 34, Chandigarh which will also have the facility of an international convention centre and theatres.
- Rejuvenation of the City Centre, Sector 17 is being undertaken by provision of multi level parking, relaying of the floors of main plaza, provisioning of tourist information centres etc.
- Completion of Sub City Centre in Sector 34 will further boost the commercial activity of the city.
- Botanical Garden is being developed on 178 acres in village Sarangpur, which will consist of 15 botanical sections and other features to promote eco tourism.
- 3 Lakes, two along Patiala ki Rao and 1 along Sukhna Choe are being undertaken , as a part of environmental related initiatives.
- Second State Library is being completed in Sector 34.
Chandigarh - the 'City beautiful' designed by famous French Architect, Le Carbusier is known for its unique architecture and well planned landscaping. It derives its name from a temple 'Chandi Mandir' located in the vicinity of the site selected for the
city. It is a modern city housing the Capital of two States Punjab and Haryana and the seat of 'Union Territory' Administration. Bounded on two sides by two seasonal rivulets, the northern edge of the city is the Capital Complex against the panoramic backdrop
of the Shivalik hills. A harmonious blend of buildings, trees and other landscape elements, with the beautiful backdrop of the Shivalik hills, enhance its aesthetic value. The most fascinating feature of the City's landscaping is perhaps the Tree plantation
along avenues, open spaces, green belts and around building complexes. A number of beautiful avenues with conspicuous tree species, well wooded forests along the periphery of city, 'Sukhna Lake' against the backdrop of Lake Reserve Forests, green belts running
across the length and breadth of the city and a beautiful 'Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary' on its periphery further enhance the ecological, environmental and aesthetic richness of the city.